The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is central for building scalable quantum information systems. In most state-of-the-art approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here, we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, nonlocal connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, in between layers of single- and two-qubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitation into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation. We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states such as cluster states and a 7-qubit Steane code state. Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code with 19 qubits and a toric code state on a torus with 24 qubits. Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analog-digital evolution and employ it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations, experimentally observing non-monotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum many-body scars. Realizing a long-standing goal, these results pave the way toward scalable quantum processing and enable new applications ranging from simulation to metrology.
arXiv link: https://arxiv.org/abs/2112.03923
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INQNET (INtelligent Quantum NEtworks & Technologies, inqnet.caltech.edu) is a research program that aims to bring together academia, national laboratories, and industry to advance quantum science and technology and address relevant fundamental questions in physics.